柏拉图的心灵理论

Plato theory of the soul

柏拉图的心灵理论

 

Plato theory of the soul is the origin of his theory of the state. In it he claims that the only happy person is the just person, or the person who is ruled by Reason.

柏拉图的心灵理论是这个国理论的源泉。在他的理论中,世界上唯一幸福的人就是公正的人,或者说,幸福的人总是受到理性的支配。

 

According to Plato, the soul consists of three basic energies which animate human beings: Reason, Emotion, and Appetite. Reason is given the greatest value, while Emotion and especially Appetite are regarded as the “lower passions”. The soul that is ordered is governed by Reason, and therefore keeps one’s emotions and one’s appetites under control. The lower passions *must* submit to the dictates of Reason.

根据柏拉图的学说,心灵是由推动人类进步的3个基本精神所组成,它们是理性、激情和嗜好。理性赋予人类以最大的价值,而情感、特别是嗜好被视作为“低等的激情”。为一个人所注定的心灵受着其理性的支配,因此人的心灵始终要保持着情感和嗜好要在理性的控制之下。低等的激情必须服从理性的命令。

 

Plato’s theory of the soul can be found in his major work, *The Republic*, where it is a response to the challenge of the Sophists as to why one ought to live morally. The Sophists in Plato’s time were men who used philosophy for profit, inventing moral loopholes to get people out of obligations, or to excuse what would otherwise be considered immoral behavior. The skeptics ask why one ought to be moral when morality is apparently a social device for maintaining order. But if there are no consequences to “immoral behavior,” then there is no motivational pressure for morality.

柏拉图的灵魂理论可以在他的主要作品 理想国 里去找到。在此书里,这部分内容是对诡辩家的“关于人为什么应该有道德地生活”的挑战的应答。 在柏拉图时代,诡辩家以哲学来谋取私利;他们制造漏洞,使某些人可以逃避其应尽的义务,或者要人们反而去原谅那些被认为是不道德的行为。 怀疑论者质问柏拉图,当道德显然已经成为维持社会秩序的一种策略的时候,为什么一个人还应当有道德? 然而如果没有不道德所造成的后果,那就没有了对道德的激发性压力。

 

Plato answers by claiming that morality is a necessary cause of happiness, that one’s happiness is correlary to one’s moral behavior. Therefore, an immoral person would be motivated to be moral if he wants to be happy. The happy person, according to Plato, is the just person, a claim that he posits in two ways:

 

柏拉图声称明来回答这些问题,他认为道德是幸福的一个必要的来源。一个人的幸福与他的道德行为有着不可分割的联系。因此,一个不道德的人,如果他需要获得幸福,他就应该积极地把自己转变为一个有道德的人。根据柏拉图的学说,幸福的人就是一个公正的人。

柏拉图在一个声明里,设想了两种方式:

1. If x is happy, then x is just, and

 

2. If x is just, then x is happy

1. 如果 X 是幸福的,那么X 就是公正的,

2. 如果 X 是公正的,那么X 就是幸福的。

 

The response of the skeptics is to claim that daily reality contradicts Plato, and that contrary to number one, tyrants, motivated by unjust principles, may be found to be happy. Moreover, they argue that contrary to number 2, saints and renunciates are known to suffer, rather than to be happy. This is where Plato’s theory of the Soul is established. He argues to the contrary that the three basic energies of the soul must be ordered in order for a person to be happy. The Emotions (reactions like anger or fear) and the Appetites (needs for food, sex, money, etc), must be ruled by Reason (thinking, persuasion, argument) in order for a person to be truly happy. When the lower passions are ruled by Reason, a person is also thereby just.

 

怀疑论者对这个声明的反应是,日常的现实与柏拉图的理论相矛盾:与第一种方式矛盾的是由不公正的原则来激发积极性的暴君,他可能已经得到了幸福。此外,怀疑论者也提出了反对上面第二种方式的论点,他们认为圣贤和出家人众所周知地在受苦受难,他们并没有得到什么幸福。 这些就是柏拉图建立心灵理论的所在。柏拉图的论点却与此相反:他认为,为了一个人的幸福,心灵的3个基本精神必须按次进行排列。情感(如愤怒或恐惧)和 嗜好(如人需要食物、性欲、金钱等等)都必须受到理性(思想、信念、论点等)的支配,以便使一个人能得到真正的幸福。在低等的激情受到了理性的支配时,一个人也可以因此而成为公正的。

 

In response to the skeptics, Plato argues that the tyrant is not therefore truly happy, and that this can be seen in his behavior. Ruled by lower passions, tyrants are known to displace Reason with Emotion, such as the fear of being assassinated, the inability to trust others; or, he will displace Reason with Appetite, such as the unsatiable greed for riches or power. In the end, such a person will be pulled apart by his lower passions, and cannot possibly find happiness with a disordered soul. Plato brings up the ancient figure of the tragic hero in order to illustrate this. Moreover, Plato argues, the suffering saint is happy amid his suffering because he is ruled by reason, and his soul is ordered. Happiness thus springs from inward qualities in the soul, according to Plato, and is not contingent upon external circumstances. When the lower passions are ordered by Reason, there is “psychic harmony,” a quality of soul that is not vulnerable to a fatal blow from an external source. A person can therefore suffer externally, and remain happy because there is harmony internally, in his soul.

 

针对对怀疑论者,柏拉图认为暴君没有得到真正的幸福,他认为这可以从暴君们的行为中看来。 受低等激情的支配,暴君们知道用情感来代替理性,诸如对行刺的恐惧,没有办法信任任何其他人;或者他们要用嗜好来代替理性,诸如对财富或权力的贪得无厌。最终,像暴君那样的人会被低等的激情所撕裂,而且不可能以一个疯狂的心灵来获得幸福。 为了说明这个问题,柏拉图提出了一些古代悲剧式英雄人物。此外,柏拉图认为,圣贤在受苦难的过程中也有幸福,因为他们在用理性来支配自己,而且他们的灵魂是有序的。由此可见,幸福起源于灵魂的内在品质。根据柏拉图的学说,从来就没有基于外在环境的偶然事件。当低等的激情能为理性所安排时,就取得了“精神上的和谐”,一个有质量的心灵不容易因外源而受到致命的打击。因此,一个人外部受苦的人,他可能仍然是幸福的,因为在他的心灵上有着内在的和谐。

 

The psychic harmony of the soul, according to Plato, expresses itself in four cardinal virtues, which are each related to the three basic energies of the soul. In relation to Reason, the happy or just person possesses Wisdom (or prudence). In relation to Emotion, the just person has the virtue of Courage. In relation to Appetite, the just person owns the virtue of Temperance, which is the control of natural desires. Flowing outward from this psychic harmony is the fourth cardinal virtue, Justice. Wisdom, Courage and Temperance are directly related to one’s own self-control; Justice flows outward from this harmony, and is directed towards other people through acts of charity and kindness.

 

根据柏拉图的学说,心灵的精神和谐,表现它自己的4个基本道德方面,它们中的每个方面都与心灵的3个基本精神有着联系。与理性有关,幸福,或许就是公正人所占有的智慧(审慎)。与情感有关,公正人有着勇敢的美德。与嗜好有关,公正人有着节制欲望的良知,也许它也可以控制自然的疾病。第4个基本道德方面是精神和谐的外流,即公平。智慧、勇气、节欲都与一个人的自我控制有关;而从和谐的外流,公平,则是通过慈善和友好的行为直接指向着其他人。

 

Plato was prepared to say that the truly just person, whose soul is ordered, is beyond tragedy, and cannot be harmed. Such a person is leading a meaningful life, as against the immoral person. Moreover, Plato extended his theory of the Soul to encapsulate the perfect government, the Republic, led by “philosopher kings” who are just, governed by Reason. Contemporary theories of the psyche also draw upon Plato’s three basic qualities of the soul, such as the Freudian designations of Ego, Superego and Id.

 

柏拉图准备说真正公正的人,他的心灵是有序的, 不是悲剧式的,是不能被伤害的。这样的一个人可以领导人们有意义的生活,来反对那些不道德的人。而且,柏拉图倾向于把他的心灵的理论封装到一个完善的政府里——形成一个“哲学家国王”所领导的共和国,他们必须是公正的,他们的行为必须受到理性的控制。 同时代的心灵理论也总结了柏拉图心灵的3个品质,如弗洛伊德所标明的自我,超越自我等等。

 

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