聪明的孩子更可能使用精神药物

The human consumption of psychoactive drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, and heroin, is of even more recent historical origin than the human consumption of alcohol or tobacco, so the Hypothesis would predict that more intelligent people use more drugs more frequently than less intelligent individuals.

人类使用精神药物,如大麻,可卡因和海洛因的历史,远比人类食用酒类和烟草来得短。本文的研究的是,越聪明的人,相比那些迟钝些的,是否会更多更频繁地使用这些精神药物。

The use of opium dates back to about 5,000 years ago, and the earliest reference to the pharmacological use of cannabis is in a book written in 2737 BC by the Chinese Emperor Shen Nung.  Opium and cannabis are the only “natural” (agricultural) psychoactive drugs.  Other psychoactive drugs are “chemical” (pharmacological); they require modern chemistry to manufacture, and are therefore of much more recent origin.  Morphine was isolated from opium in 1806, cocaine was first manufactured in 1860, and heroin was discovered in 1874.

人类食用鸦片的历史可以追溯到5,000年前。在公元前2737年,中国皇帝神农氏的著作里就记载了大麻的药理用途。鸦片和大麻是唯一两种“天然的”(自然种植的)精神药物。而其他的各种精神药物都是“化学合成”(基于药理学合成),它们需要通过现代的化学技术进行制造,因此,人类服用这些化学合成药物的历史更为短暂。1806年,从鸦片中提取出了吗啡;1860年才首次制造出可卡因,而海洛因是到1874年才被发现。

Given their extremely recent origin and thus evolutionary novelty, the Hypothesis would predict that more intelligent individuals are more likely to consume all types of psychoactive drugs than less intelligent individuals.  Once again, as with alcohol consumption, the fact that the consumption of psychoactive drugs has largely negative health consequences and few (if any) benefits of any kind is immaterial to the Hypothesis.  It does not predict that more intelligent individuals are more likely to engage in healthy and beneficial behavior, only that they are more likely to engage in evolutionarily novel behavior.  As I point out in an earlier post, more intelligent people are often more likely to do stupid things.

对于这些层出不穷的新玩意,我们想验证一个假设,就是越聪明的人群,相对不太聪明的那群人,更有可能尝试这些新的精神药品。再次说明,就同我研究酒类消费时一样,精神药物对人体健康有百害无一利的事实和我本文所要验证的假设无关。不是说越是聪明的人,就会更喜欢健康和有益的行为,文章想研究的越是聪明的人,越是有可能尝试新出现的东西。就如我之前的文章指出的,越聪明的人,越有可能干傻事。

Consistent with the prediction of the Hypothesis, the analysis of the National Child Development Study shows that more intelligent children in the United Kingdom are more likely to grow up to consume psychoactive drugs than less intelligent children.  Net of sex, religion, religiosity, marital status, number of children, education, earnings, depression, satisfaction with life, social class at birth, mother’s education, and father’s education, British children who are more intelligent before the age of 16 are more likely to consume psychoactive drugs at age 42 than less intelligent children.

和本文的假设一致,国家儿童成长研究组织(National Child Development Study)提供的报告显示,在英国,相比智商平平的孩子,那些较为聪明的孩子长大后,使用精神药物的可能性较大。研究报告囊括了他们的性别,宗教信仰,狂热程度,婚姻状况,孩子数量,教育程度,收入状况,抑郁情绪,对生活的满意度,出身的社会阶层,母亲的教育程度,父亲的教育程度。研究发现英国孩子中,那些在16岁以前表现得较为聪明的孩子,到了42岁左右,比那些迟钝些的孩子更有可能使用精神药品。

The following graph shows the association between childhood general intelligence and the latent factor for the consumption of psychoactive drugs, constructed from indicators for the consumption of 13 different types of psychoactive drugs (cannabis, ecstasy, amphetamines, LSD, amyl nitrate, magic mushrooms, cocaine, temazepan, semeron, ketamine, crack, heroin, and methadone).  As you can see, there is a clear monotonic association between childhood general intelligence and adult consumption of psychoactive drugs.  “Very bright” individuals (with IQs above 125) are roughly three-tenths of a standard deviation more likely to consume psychoactive drugs than “very dull” individuals (with IQs below 75).

以上图表反映了儿童时期智力水平与儿童成年后可能使用精神药物的潜在变量的关系。研究涉及了13类不同的精神药物:大麻,迷幻药,安非他命,摇头丸,硝酸戊脂,麻古,可卡因,安定,醋酸丁汞,克他命,快客,海洛因和美沙酮。从图表中可以看出,儿童时期的智力水平和成年后服用精神药物的可能性呈清晰单一的相关性。“非常聪明”的孩子(智商超过125)比那些“非常迟钝”的孩子,成年后服用精神药物的可能性高约十分之三。

The following graph shows a similar association between childhood intelligence and the latent factor for the consumption of psychoactive drugs among Americans.  The data come from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.  The childhood intelligence is measured in junior high and high school, and the adult drug consumption is measured seven years later, and constructed from indicators for the consumption of 5 different types of psychoactive drugs (marijuana, cocaine, LSD, crystal meth, and heroin).  The association is not monotonic, but nevertheless, “normal” (90 < IQ < 110), “bright” (110 < IQ < 125), and “very bright” individuals consume more psychoactive substances than “very dull” or “dull” (75 < IQ < 90) individuals.  

上面的图表则是反映了美国的情况。即儿童时期智力水平和成年后服用精神药物的相关性。数据来自美国青少年健康长期研究所。智力水平是在他们初中及高中时测试的,服用精神药物的数据是在七年后采集的。精神药物采样共5类:大麻,可卡因,摇头丸,去氧麻黄碱和海洛因。相关性虽然不太单一,但可以看出智力正常(90

People – scientists and civilians alike – often associate intelligence with positive life outcomes.  The fact that more intelligent individuals are more likely to consume alcohol, tobacco, and psychoactive drugs tampers this universally positive view of intelligence and intelligent individuals.  Intelligent people don’t always do the right thing, only the evolutionarily novel thing.

公众,包括科学家和普通人,常会将智力水平和积极的生活方式相联系。但事实上,越是聪明的人群,更可能去饮酒,抽烟和使用精神药物。这个结论颠覆了我们对智商及聪明人群的看法。聪明人不一定总是做正确的事,他们只想着去尝试新的事物。

 

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