脑分子或许可以叫你告别痛苦记忆

脑分子或许可以叫你告别痛苦记忆

by JON HAMILTON

乔恩 汉密尔顿

Scientists have discovered a molecule in the brain that may help erase the fearful memories that afflict people with post-traumatic stress disorder.

在经历过某些灾难或创伤后留给人们的重大创伤后遗症使人们饱受折磨。科学家在大脑里发现了一种分子,能够帮助人们抹除那些使人产生痛苦的记忆。

Red marks the amygdala

红色部分是杏仁体

The substance, described in an online edition of the journal Science, was found in mice. But it’s part of a memory system that seems to work the same way in people.

在线版《自然》杂志里描述了这种在老鼠脑内发现的分子。老鼠的一部分记忆系统的工作方式和人类的是相同的。。

Roger Clem and Richard Huganir of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine made the discovery while studying mice conditioned to associate a particular sound with an electric shock.

这种物质是约翰霍普金斯大学医学院的罗杰 克莱姆教授和理查德 哈甘耐尔教授在研究训练老鼠把一种特定的声音和电击联系在一起这一课题时发现的。

“If they hear the tone the next day, or even weeks later, the mouse will freeze” because it will bring up the fearful memory of the shock, Huganir tells Shots.

“如果参加实验老鼠在第二天甚至是几周之后听到了实验中的那种声音,他们都会愣住的”哈甘耐尔教授告诉我们,因为声音引起了老鼠关于电击的痛苦回忆。

Clem and Huganir wanted to understand how that fearful memory is created.

克莱姆和哈甘耐尔教授想知道痛苦回忆是如何产生的。

So they studied the brains of mice that had just gone through fear conditioning. And they noticed that an unusual protein appeared in the amygdala, a part of the brain involved in emotions.

因此他们研究了参加痛苦制约实验老鼠的大脑,接着他们注意到在杏仁体(大脑中与情绪相关的一部分)里出现了一种不同寻常的蛋白质。

That molecule remained for only a few days and appeared to strengthen the brain circuit responsible for maintaining the fearful memory.

这种分子仅仅出现几天并且似乎在加强着维持痛苦记忆的大脑电路。

But when the researchers eliminated the protein during this period, mice lost their fearful memory. Forever.

但是当研究者在这段时间内消除了该种蛋白质后,老鼠永久的丢失了对电击的痛苦记忆。

The trick was to eliminate the protein soon after a fearful incident, Huganir says.

哈甘耐尔教授说:“消除痛苦记忆的方法就是在痛苦的事件发生后立即消除这种蛋白质”。

“Maybe this is a window of time when behavioral therapy would work much better,” Huganir says, adding that it may also be possible to eliminate the protein with drugs.

“或许这一方法为行为治法更好的实行提供了新的研究思路”,哈甘耐尔教授说如是。他又补充道,或许也可以用药物来消除那些蛋白质。

And he says research on people suggests that it may be possible to create a new window for treatment by having people deliberately recall a fearful memory.

在人身上进行此类研究可以为治疗提供一种新的思路,采取让人们刻意回想痛苦记忆的方法。

Researchers from New York University found that when people did that, there was a 6-hour window in which the original memory could be altered permanently through behavioral techniques.

纽约大学的学者们发现,当人们刻意回想痛苦记忆时,有六小时的时间可以通过行为技术来永久的删除原始记忆。

Experiments in rodents suggest that’s because the molecule involved in fear memories appears once again in the amygdala, Huganir says.

通过对于啮齿动物的研究表明,在刻意回想痛苦记忆时,该分子会再次出现在杏仁体内,哈甘耐尔教授说。

If so, he says, it may be possible to eliminate a person’s unwanted memory during the critical period by giving a drug that interferes with the fear molecule.

他说,如果是这样的话就能够在一段特定的时间之内通过药物干涉痛苦分子来删除某个人想要的记忆了。

========================分割线===========================


JT aladsf (burntchemistry)
wrote:原文下面有读者进行讨论,摘录几条。

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine also known as MDMA also known as ecstacy is also useful for treating PTSD. It also is believed to work by stopping a fear inhibition pathway (involving hippocampus and amygdala) that in PTSD suffers is not functioning.

甲烯二氧甲苯丙胺,也称为摇头丸,用于治疗创伤后心理压力紧张综合症(PTSD).它也被认为是一种抑制恐惧传递的途径(包括海马和杏仁体), 从而使之不正常运转。

 

Question is why isn’t the federal grant agencies funding this research? Especially when thousands of young men and women whom they sent to war are returning with PTSD.

http://www.maps.org/research/mdma/

 

问题是,为什么联邦政府不给于这方面研究基金?特别是成千上万的美国年轻人打仗回来之后承受着创伤心理压力紧张综合症。

有网友留言也在质疑该篇科学文章的正确性,包括为什么没有提及该分子的名字。

Doug Mont (dmon) wrote:

In the basolateral amygdala, endocannabinoids and CB1 were crucially involved in long-term depression of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-mediated inhibitory currents. We propose that endocannabinoids facilitate extinction of aversive memories through their selective inhibitory effects on local inhibitory networks in the amygdala.

http://ripatients.org/medical/ptsd/

http://www.cannabisnews.org/united-states-cannabis-news/medicalmarijuana/marijuana-could-alleviate-symptoms-of-ptsd/

 

关于这方面的还可以见:

1、新脑细胞可以抹除陈旧的记忆

http://www.lifeomics.com/?p=21212

2、创伤后心理压力紧张综合症

http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/%E5%88%9B%E4%BC%A4%E5%90%8E%E5%BF%83%E7%90%86%E5%8E%8B%E5%8A%9B%E7%B4%A7%E5%BC%A0%E7%BB%BC%E5%90%88%E7%97%87

3、杏仁体

http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/%E6%9D%8F%E4%BB%81%E4%BD%93

4、行为疗法

http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/%E8%A1%8C%E7%82%BA%E6%B2%BB%E7%99%82

 

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