超越岛屿的中日冲突

A torn apart Japanese ‘Rising Sun’ flag is placed on dead fish during a demonstration in front of the Japan Exchange Association – Japan’s representative office on Taiwan- on September 14 over the continued island dispute between Tokyo and Beijing.STORY HIGHLIGHTS

9月14日北京和东京持续发酵的岛屿争端时,在台日本官方代表处——日本交流协会前示威中,撕烂的日本“太阳旗”放在死鱼上

(CNN) — The husk of a dead volcano protruding from the East China Sea has become the battleground between the two mightiest economies in Asia.

(CNN)——一块突出东中国海的死火山石成了亚洲两大经济巨人之间的战场。

At stake are potentially lucrative gas drilling rights in waters claimed by China and Japan. But the outcome of the territorial dispute may hinge on the medicinal herbs of a Chinese empress, the collection of bird excrement by the Japanese and the definition of what really makes an “island.”

所有的利益冲突都来源于,坐落在中国和日本都声称拥有主权的这片水域的有利可图的天然气井。但这次领土争端很可能决定于中国皇帝的一味中药,日本鸟粪便收集物,和关于”到底什么是岛”的问题.

The latest controversy over the simmering dispute erupted when Japanese patrol officers arrested the captain and crew of a Chinese fishing boat earlier this month near the disputed islands — known as Diaoyu in China and Senkaku in Japan. The crew was released, but the Chinese captain remains in custody. He is to appear in a Japanese court on charges that he rammed two Japanese boats with his vessel .

在这一暗涌横流的争端里,最近的冲突起源于这个月早些时候,日本巡逻官员在这一中国称作钓鱼岛,日本称作尖阁诸岛的争议岛屿,逮捕了一艘中国渔船的船长。日方释放了船员但拘留了船长。他将接受日本法院的关于他冲撞两艘日本船只的指控。

Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao on Tuesday urged Japan to release the boat captain “immediately and unconditionally,” China’s state news agency Xinhua reported.

中国总理温家宝周二强烈要求日本“立即无条件”释放渔船船长,中国国家新闻社新华社报道。

The economic repercussions have been immediate. The Chinese government cut off high-level talks with Japan on coal and increased commercial flights between the countries. The dispute also threatens planned talks on a 2008 agreement to jointly develop gas fields located near the disputed islands and in other parts of the East China Sea.

经济的反制立即显现。中国政府中断了中日在煤炭和增加两国商务航班的高层级对话。争端也威胁到2008年协议上达成的,合作开发争议岛屿附近区域和东海其他区域的天然气田的对话磋商。

Run-ins between China and Japan over the sovereignty of the islands are nothing new. Japanese nationalists held demonstrations on the island back in 1990. But what is most worrisome to long-time watchers of the dispute is the assertiveness of both governments in the current fracas.

关于这个小岛的主权争议不是今天才有。1990年日本民族主义者发起了示威游行要求收回小岛。最让长期关注这一争端头疼的是双方政府在这个摩擦事件上强硬的自信。

“A big difference this time: These incidents aren’t being sparked by nationalists,” said James Manicom, an expert on maritime disputes at the Balsillie School of International Affairs in Waterloo, Canada. “In the past, the most important thing (for Beijing and Tokyo) was to try to make this issue go away and to keep a lid on nationalist sentiment. Japan in particular now sees (territorial sovereignty) as a vital issue economically and as a national security issue.”

“最大的不同在于”这次事件并不是由民族主义者所引发的,”加拿大滑铁卢巴尔西里国际关系学院詹姆斯马尼康说。“过去,最重要的事(北京和东京)是尽量平息事件盖住民族主义者的情绪。日本这次则把这次(领土主权)上升为经济上的核心事件和国家安全的问题上。”

“It’s different in terms of the context of China rising and Japan in bit of a travail both economically and politically,” said Mark Valencia, a fellow at the National Asia Research Program.

“从中国崛起的大环境和处于经济和政治上经历阵痛的日本,双方的感受也是不一样的。”国立亚洲研究课程的研究员马克巴伦西亚说。

What makes an island?

这个岛到底怎么来的

The dispute boils down to where lines can be drawn in the ocean for commercial use. International law allows for a nation to claim exclusive economic rights to fish, oil and mineral reserves up to 200 nautical miles from the shore.

在这一争端可以归结到海洋的商业开发权。国际法规定国家在离岸200海里的地方享有专有经济权:包括捕鱼,石油和矿产开发。

“The islands are a pile of rocks determining where the boundary may be drawn,” said Dr. Wu Kang of the East-West Center in Hawaii. “The overriding issue is a territorial issue.”

“这个岛就是决定边界划分的一块石头,”夏威夷的东西方研究中心的吴康说“主要争议就是领土争议。”

“If Japan owns (the islands), then it gets a heck of a lot more (area) to develop what is increasingly thought to be a very gas-rich area that hasn’t been explored very much at all because of this ongoing dispute,” Valencia said.

“如果日本拥有(这个岛)了,他就得到一块越来越多人相信尚未开发的天然气丰富的海域,”巴伦西亚说。

One question hanging over territorial claims is whether the disputed islands are islands at all, according to maritime law. If they’re not islands, then territorial claims don’t apply.

另一个关于此领土声明上悬而未决的问题是这个争议岛屿到底是不是个岛,根据海洋法。如果他们不能确认是岛,则领土声明是无效的.

“An island has an economic life of its own and can support human habitations; these are extinct volcanoes,” Valencia said.

“岛屿首先要有其自身的经济声明,能够支持人类居住;这是他们区别与火山的地方,”巴伦西亚说。

Both sides say they have a history of economic use of the islands. China points to a 1893 decree by Dowager Empress Cixi, giving the island to a Chinese medicine-maker for use in cultivating herbs. Japan points to 19th century use on the island to collect seabird feathers and guano. Japanese nationalists traveled to the islands in 1990 and 1996 to build a lighthouse and further the economic claim for sovereignty.

双方都声称曾经在此岛有经济活动。中国指出1983慈禧太后指令,此岛是用来种中药商生产草药的。日本则指出19世纪他们到此岛上收集鸟毛和鸟粪。日本民族主义者1990年和1996年到岛上修了灯塔并给其经济声主权明增添了新证据。

The islands are considered part of Japan based on U.S.-Japan security treaties. Though analysts don’t think the current tension will escalate and draw in the U.S. military treaty obligations, the agreements add murk to an already muddy territorial dispute.

这个岛屿被视作日美防御条约的一部分。虽然分析人士认为目前的紧张局势不会加剧到需要美国军事条约的责任,但这项条约给本已混沌的领土争端增加更多变数。

With nationalists in Japan and China watching, officials in Tokyo and Beijing will face increasing pressure not to blink in the current conflict. The Ishigaki Summary Court in Okinawa decided that the captain will be held at least until September 29, the Japanese Coast Guard told CNN on Monday.

日本和中国的民族主义者的强烈关注,让北京和东京的官员倍感压力而不能再此问题上有丝毫松懈。冲绳县的石垣简易法庭将扣留船长直至9月29日,日本自卫队告诉周一cnn。

“Both sides are getting themselves in real deep here. Someone is going to emerge with egg on their face,” Valencia said.

“双方都让自己陷得很深。总有一方要丧气而归,”巴伦西亚说。

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